Community Economies

Policy Implications

Realizing new economic futures, one community at a time

Since all communities face their own sets of unique challenges and assets, this report explores possibilities for new economic futures in the context of one particular community.  By contextualizing the discussion within broader economic and political realities, it also provides insights for other communities that are undergoing economic and social transitions and striving to do so in a sustainable and humane way.

Multiplying Possibilities: A postdevelopment approach to hygiene and sanitation

Kelly Dombroski

In water, hygiene and sanitation (WASH) literature and interventions, it is common to class households with anything other than private toilets as ‘without sanitation’. This implies that the people who use forms of hygiene and sanitation relying on collective toilets and alternative strategies are somehow unhygienic. Yet residents of Xining (Qinghai Province, China) rely on hygiene assemblages that do not always include private toilets, but nonetheless still work to guard health for families with young children. In this paper, I develop a postdevelopment approach to hygiene and sanitation based on starting with the place-based hygiene realities already working to guard health in some way, then working to multiply possibilities for future sanitation and hygiene strategies. In this approach, contemporary and future realities may look quite different from those based on private toilets.

Dombroski, K. Forthcoming. 'Multiplying Possibilities: A posdevelopment approach to hygiene and sanitation in Northwest China. Submitted to Asia Pacific Viewpoint.

Economization and Beyond: (Re)composing Livelihoods in Maine, USA

Ethan Miller

This paper draws on interviews with economic development professionals in Maine (USA) to pursue two tasks: first, to explore the potentials and limits of Çalsikan and Callon's notion of "economization" as the tracing of how "the economic" is produced as a material-semiotic construction; and second, to propose an approach that refuses the assumption that the composition of collective provisioning will (or should) take the ultimate form of an "economy." Development processes and struggles can also be read in terms of the "composition of livelihoods"—beckoning toward a “transversal” politics that might open up possibilities for unexpected alliances and alternative regional development pathways.

Miller, Ethan (Forthcoming). "Economization and Beyond: (Re)composing Livelihoods in Maine, USA." Environment and Planning A.

Enabling social innovation – opportunities for sustainable local and regional development

Joanne McNeill

Paper on doctoral research in progress.

McNeill, J. 2013. Enabling social innovation - opportunities for sustainable local and regional development. Paper presented at inaugural Social Frontiers: The Next Edge of Social Innovation Research conference, Glasgow Caledonian University, London, 14-15 Nov 2013.

More than numbers: A shared value approach to social impact assessment

Joanne McNeill

Article for the Planning Institute of Australia (NSW) journal.

McNeill, J. & Burkett, I. September 2013. More than numbers: A shared value approach to social impact assessment. New Planner, (96), 18-20

Beyond the Business Case: A Community Economies Approach to Gender, Development And Social Economy

Stephen Healy

In this paper co-authored with Suzanne Bergeron, we explore how international development discourse has placed women at the center of a "smart economics" approach to economic development.  While we are heartened by development discourse's new found interest in economies of care and social  reproduction, we are troubled by the way that an essentialized conception of gender is attached to a economic growth as usual agenda.  We explore the potential of theory of the community economy, with its emphasis on the moment of ethical decision, might serve to unsettle essentialist categories of gender while redirecting the aims of the develoment process.

Forthcoming in an edited volume published by the United Nations Research in Social Development. (UNRISD).

How do public policy and programs enable social innovation activities that contribute to more sustainable forms of local and regional development?

Joanne McNeill

Paper on doctoral research in process.

McNeill, J. 2013. How do public policy and programs enable social innovation activities that contribute to more sustainable forms of local and regional development? Paper presented at 4th EMES International Research Conference on Social Enterprise, University of Liege, Belgium, 2-4 July 2013.

Generating social value through public procurement: the case of Parramatta City Council

Joanne McNeill

Case study included in OECD report. 

Barraket, J., Furneaux, C. & McNeill, J. June 2013. Generating social value through public procurement: the case of Parramatta City Council. In: Tackling Long-Term Unemployment Amongst Vulnerable Groups. Trento, Italy: Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD)

Through Schumpeter: Public policy, social innovation and social entrepreneurship

Joanne McNeill

McNeill, J. 2012. Through Schumpeter: Public policy, social innovation and social entrepreneurship. The International Journal of Sustainability Policy and Practice, 8 (1), 81-94

Toward a Cartography of the Commons: Constituting the Political and Economic Possibilities of Place

Kevin St. Martin

Competing with the cartography of capitalism, undermining its power to fix resources as open to capitalist appropriation and space as enclosed, will require a cartography of the commons that makes visible community and commons processes; it will require a shift in strategy from explicating and defending existing commons to mapping spaces into which a commons future might be projected. The “Buffalo Commons” and a map-based project in New England fisheries link new spatial imaginaries with desires for and enactments of alternative economic initiatives. Each project rereads economic and environmental processes relative to the potential of the commons rather than the potential of capitalism.

 

St. Martin, K. 2009. “Toward a Cartography of the Commons: Constituting the Political and Economic Possibilities of Place” Professional Geographer 61(4): 493-507.

The Difference that Class Makes: Neoliberalization and Non-Capitalism in the Fishing Industry of New England

Kevin St. Martin

Fishing economies are typically represented as pre-capitalist and as a barrier to capital accumulation rather than as an alternative economy with its own potentials. Privatization (and capitalism) appears logical and inevitable because “there is no alternative” described or given. The class analysis presented here focuses on questions of property and subjectivity and describes fishing as a non-capitalist and community-based economy consonant with both a tradition of common property and an image of “fishermen” as independent and interested in fairness and equity. While the latter is associated with a neoliberal subject aligned with the capitalist economy, a class analysis of fishing repositions “fishermen” as community subjects aligned with a community economy.

 

St. Martin, K. 2007.“The Difference that Class Makes: Neoliberalization and Non-Capitalism in the Fishing Industry of New England” Antipode 39(3): 527-549.

The Impact of "Community" on Fisheries Management in the U.S. Northeast

Kevin St. Martin

The discourse of fisheries science and management displaces community and culture from the essential economic dynamic of fisheries. The goal of this dominant discourse is to enclose fisheries, to constitute it as within the singular and hegemonic economy of capitalism. Alternative economies, such as those based on the presence of community, are always seen as either existing before or beyond the dominant economic formation. The category of community is, nevertheless, being incorporated into contemporary fisheries science and management where it has the potential to disrupt the ontological foundations of the current management regime. This paper explores this potential disruption.

 

St. Martin, K. 2006. “The Impact of "Community" on Fisheries Management in the U.S. Northeast,” Geoforum 37(2) 169-184.

Mapping Economic Diversity in the First World: The Case of Fisheries

Kevin St. Martin

This paper challenges the ways in which the First World/Third World binary, coupled with a "capitalocentric" discourse of economic development, limit possibilities for economies of community, cooperation and participation. Fisheries are used as an example to argue that undermining the presence of capitalism in the First World and making space for that which has been excluded (for example, community-based and territorial fisheries) requires a new economic and spatial imaginary.

 

St. Martin, K. 2005. “Mapping Economic Diversity in the First World : The Case of Fisheries,” Environment and Planning A 37: 959-979.

Disrupting Enclosure in New England Fisheries

Kevin St. Martin

"The commons" is often represented in terms that place capitalism at the center of the story, thus making "a commons future" difficult to imagine. This paper examines this problematic through research on the common property management regime of New England fisheries, seeking to offer alternative representations of commons that might open up economic possibility.

St. Martin, K. 2005. “Disrupting Enclosure in New England Fisheries,” Capitalism, Nature, Socialism 16(1): 63-80.

Making Space for Community Resource Management in Fisheries

Kevin St. Martin

This article draws on field research in New England to challenge conventional individualized accounts of fishery dynamics and develop a representation of fisheries as diverse sites of community organization and cooperative management of common property. This is a "re-mapping," both literal and figurative, of the landscapes of fishery practice as a strategy to open more possibilities for communal resource management.

 

St. Martin , K. 2001. “Making Space for Community Resource Management in Fisheries,” The Annals of the Association of American Geographers 91(1): 122-142.

 

 

Different Merry-Go-Rounds: Families, Communities and the 7-Day Roster

Katherine Gibson

A booklet outlining some of the major impacts of the 7-day work roster on families and communities from the perspective of women in four coal-mining communities in Central Queensland, Australia.

Gibson, K. Different Merry-Go-Rounds: Families, Communities and the 7-Day Work Roster  (Clayton, Victoria: Monash University Centre for Women's Studies and Department of Geography and Environmental Science, 1993).

Australian Stories of Social Enterprise

Joanne McNeill

Non-academic book exploring 33 Australian social enterprises, based on in-depth interviews.

Kernot, C. & McNeill, J. 2011. Australian Stories of Social Enterprise. Sydney: UNSW

In pursuit of social impact – towards a ‘joint-stewardship’ approach to financier relationships in social entrepreneurship and social enterprise

Joanne McNeill

McNeill, J. 2011. In pursuit of social impact - Towards a 'joint stewardship' approach to financier relationships in social entrepreneurship and social enterprise. Paper presented at 3rd International Social Innovation Research Conference, London Southbank University, 12-13 September 2011

From calamity to community enterprise

Ann Hill, Jojo Rom

This paper highlights social enterprise development as a  post-disaster livelihood re-building strategy that has the potential to build resilience and foster disaster preparedness in local communities.

Hill, A. and Rom, P. 2011. From calamity to community enterprise, Asian Currents. May, 7-9.

Local Responses to Climate Change: Using the Diverse Economy to Meet Energy Needs

This Honours Thesis uses the Diverse Economies Framework to explore the renewable energy initiatives that are being developed by grassroots groups.

 

Hicks, Jarra. 2009. Local Responses to Climate Change: Using the Diverse Economy to Meet Energy Needs. Hons Thesis, Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Diverse Food Economies

Jenny Cameron

This paper uses the Diverse Economies Framework to explore initiatives that have been developed to build more sustainable and ethical food futures, and to identify policy and reseach activities that might help strengthen these initiatives.

Cameron, J. and R. Gordon 2010. Building sustainable and ethical food futures through economic diversity: options for a mid-sized city'. Paper presented at the Policy Workshop on The Future of Australia's Mid-Sized Cities, Latrobe University, Bendigo, Australia, Sept 29-30.

Business as Usual or Economic Innovation?: Work, Markets and Growth in Community and Social Enterprises

Jenny Cameron

This paper explores the different and diverse economic practices that two Community Supported Agriculture initiatives use to enact their ethical commitments. The paper considers what this means for current government support for social and community enterprises.

Cameron, J. 2010, Forthcoming. Business as usual or economic innovations? work, markets and growth in community enterprises, Third Sector Review 16(2).

Rethinking rural transformation

Katherine Gibson, A Cahill, D Mckay

This paper draws on ecological ideas to rethink the dynamics of rural economic transformation in the Philippines.

 

K. Gibson, A. Cahill and D. McKay, 2010 Rethinking the dynamics of rural transformation in a Philippine municipality Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers volume: pages

How the public sector can support growth and sustainability in social enterprise activity

Joanne McNeill

Report on Churchill Fellowship study tour to the UK, Canada and the US.

McNeill, J. 2009. How the public sector can support growth and sustainability in social enterprise activity. Winston Churchill Memorial Trust Fellowship

Social Innovation for Community Economies

Gerda Roelvink, JK Gibson-Graham

In this chapter we stage a conversation between two innovative and longstanding projects, (1) the multiphase European-based research project on local social innovation that is represented in this book and (2) the Community Economies project which is engaged in rethinking economy through action research in Australia, the Philippines and the US.

Gibson-Graham, J.K. and G. Roelvink. 2009. Social innovation for community economies, in D. MacCallum, F. Moulaert, J. Hillier and S. Haddock (eds) Social Innovation and Territorial Development, Ashgate, Farnham, UK, 25-37.

Beyond green capitalism: Providing an alternative discourse for the environmental movement and natural resource management

Elizabeth (Za) Barron, Elizabeth Barron

In this paper interpreting mushroom hunting as part of the diverse economy facilitates its place independent of environmental protection strategies like “green capitalism,” which fail in part because they ignore non-capitalist resource use and extraction activities that do not fit within market oriented approaches to resource management.

 

Barron, E.S. 2005. Beyond green capitalism: Providing an alternative discourse for the environmental movement and natural resource management. Middle States Geographer, 38, 69-76.

Building Community Economies in Marginalised Areas

Jenny Cameron, Katherine Gibson

Elaborates an economic and social policy response to disadvantage that builds on the skills and ideas of marginalised groups.

Gibson, K. & Cameron. J. 2005. Building Community Economies in Marginalised Areas, in P. Smyth, T. Reddel & A. Jones (eds) Community and Local Governance in Australia, UNSW Press, Sydney, 149-166.

Mapping Urban Change and Changing GIS: Other Views of Economic Restructuring

Marianna Pavlovskaya

This article discusses the use of GIS for an alternative analysis of the transition to capitalism in Moscow, Russia in the 1990s. Following the argument for incorporating quantitative methods into feminist research agendas, the article illustrates how GIS can be part of a critical and feminist analysis of economic transition.

 

Pavlovskaya, M. 2002. "Mapping urban change and changing GIS: Other views of economic restructuring," Gender, place and culture: A journal of feminist geography, V 9 (3): 281 – 289